An electrical conductor is an object that is able to pass an electric current, and often a good conductor of electricity is also a good conductor of heat, as most metals are good conductors of electricity, the best of which are silver, copper and gold.
Water is a good conductor of electricity as soon as it contains some impurities. If the water is purified, it becomes unable to conduct electricity, so the water molecules themselves do not have a specific task and this results in the water becoming unable to exchange electrons and without exchanging them, water cannot conduct electricity, Although there is no salty taste in tap water, it is conductive to electricity because it contains impurities and is not pure.
The most electrically conductive element is silver, followed by copper and gold. Silver also has a high thermal conductivity. Although they are the best conductor, but copper and gold are used more often in electrical applications because copper is less expensive and gold has a much higher corrosion resistance than silver.
The reason why silver is the best conductor is that its electrons are more free to move than those of other elements.
This list shows the order of the elements from highest to lowest in terms of electrical conductivity. Since the size and shape of a material affect its electrical conductivity, the list assumes that all samples are of the same size.
Certain factors can affect how well a substance conducts electricity.
• Temperature : Increasing the temperature leads to excitation of thermal atoms and reduces electrical conductivity.
• Impurities : Adding impurities to a substance reduces its conductivity of electricity.
• Electromagnetic fields : The conductors generate their own electromagnetic fields when electricity passes through them, and the magnetic field is perpendicular to the electric field.